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ESD is the rapid mobility or transfer of charge carriers (atoms or ions) across and between 2 surfaces in contact which is caused by a differential in potential between the two materials. Separation between 2 objects Motion between 2 or more objects
Air and other gases in w/ velocity across another surface Liquid flow thru a pipe.

bulletCharge removal:
    Charge must flow to ground
    Time needed depends on the resistance and the capacitance
    R is dependent on resistivity of material, size, shape ect
    Capacitance is dependent on location and placement of objects nearby and dielectric constant of materials

 

Positive                 Human Hands
+                              Quartz
                                Nylon
                                Lead
                               Aluminum
                               Chrome
                               Steel
                               Polyurethane
                               Polypropylene
                               PVC
                               Silicon
                               Mylar
- Negative            Teflon
 
TRIBOELECTRIC SERIES CHART

 

How are ESD plastics made?

  1. Conductivity Is Imparted To Plastics By Compounding One Or More Of The Following Additives Into The Plastic

Powdered Metals:
Gold, Silver, Copper, Aluminum, Zinc, Nickel
 

Powdered Carbon:
Carbon Black, Graphite - Materials Have Both Surface And Volume Conductivity
    Carbon Loaded Materials Have Permanent Conductivity
    Carbon Is A Low Cost Additive
    It Is Difficult To Produce Plastics That Are In The Dissipative
    Range: E6 Ohms To E9 Ohms

Nano Tubes:
     These are vapor-grown carbon nano-tubes and nano-fibers

Antistats:
ETHOXYLATED AMIDO Amines
 

Inherently Conductive Polymers:
Polyether Amides, Polyether Amides, Polyanilines
    ICPíS Have Both Surface And Volume Conductivity.
    ICPíS Can Not Be Used Alone. They Must Be Compounded With Other Plastics To Achieve Good Mechanical Properties.
    ICPíS Give Resistance Values In The Static Dissipative Range. E2 Ohms To E4 Ohms

 

Inherently Dissipative Polymers:
Polyether Amides, Polyether Amides, Polyanilines
    IDPíS Have Both Surface And Volume Conductivity.
    IDPíS Can Not Be Used Alone. They Must Be Compounded With Other Plastics To Achieve Good Mechanical Properties.
    IDPíS Give Resistance Values In The Static Dissipative Range. E6 Ohms To E10 Ohms

Metal Oxide Semi-conductors:
Tin Oxide, Vanadium Oxide, Indium Tin Oxide

 

Poorly designed systems with the wrong materials can generate several volts/cm peak and over 500 v/cm to the control PCBAís. Molded insulating polymer materials, while typically attractive by being less expensive than machined metal parts, can increase the hazards of ESD by increasing the resistance of or obstructing ground paths. It should be noted, great care must be taken when selecting materials. Insulating polymers also typically increase triboelectric charging. Donít reley only on initial costs.

What to do next from here...

Examine and write a short 1 page report on each of the following topics.

Team Meeting

Use separate pieces of paper for each one topic.  Hang on wall 3 feet apart. Get post it pads in a meeting with the different team members.  Each one of the team members write down on the large post it ...what is important to the project for each listed topics.  Combine each post it pad under the general topic subject.  Examine list and remove repeats, and not related words. Give the writer a chance to explain if necessary.  Often, that word may not be the right choice and the team will find common ground under another word.  On the topic index papers hanging on the wall, write down the agreed upon word that was on the post it pad sheet.  Combine words a sentence which describes the needs and functions based on the post it pads. 


Understanding:
Current applications
Current product sensitivity
 


Considering:
Shrinking form factors and new models
More complex technologies that are on the table
 


Determining:
Ability to operate with a trained work force in an ESD safe material compliant work zone.
 


New Applications
Summary Of Material Options
Device Limits
Economic Benefits

 

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